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The age of the young fraction(s) in ground-water mixtures can be particularly useful when assessing the susceptibility of ground-water resources to contamination from anthropogenic sources.
There are fundamental differences between dating the young fraction in ground-water mixtures with CFCs and with H can be almost entirely attributed to the young fraction. J., and Top, Z., 1976, Determination of tritium by mass spectrometric measurement of He: International Journal of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, v.
In some mixtures, the CFC age of the young fraction could be determined from the ratio of two CFCs in the water sample, and mixing fractions based on the ratio of observed to expected CFC concentrations in the water sample (see Plummer and others, 2000). C., 1993, Age dating ground water by use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl), and distribution of chlorofluorocarbons in the unsaturated zone, Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho: U. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 93-4054, 47p.
If mixing of young and old water occurs, the CFC concentration in the ground-water sample must be divided by the fraction of young water in the mixture before age of the young fraction can be estimated.
Additionally, location of the mid-1960s bomb peak provides information on recharge rate (Schlosser and others, 1988, 1989; Solomon and Sudicky, 1991; Solomon and others, 1992, 1993; Ekwurzel and others, 1994).
Locating the position of the mid-1960s bomb peak is difficult due to the required high density of vertical sampling and, therefore, is often an impractical means of obtaining ground-water age information. Ekwurzel, B., Schlosser, P., Smethie, Jr., Plummer, L. L., Weppernig, R., and, Stute, M., 1994, Dating of shallow groundwater: Comparison of the transient tracers Kr: Water Resources Research, v.
L., 1998a, Flow of river water into a karstic limestone aquifer-1.
B., Busenberg, E., Drenkard, S., Schlosser, P., and Michel, R. Dating the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia.
If the atoms of H, or 3.24 picocuries per liter, p Ci/L.
D., 1993, Environmental tracers for age-dating young ground water: in Alley, W.
Tracing the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia.
Effects of mixing can be more significant when waters are sampled from relatively large intervals in aquifers. N., 1992, Use of chlorofluoromethanes (CCl) as hydrologic tracers and age-dating tools: Example - The alluvium and terrace system of central Oklahoma: Water Resources Research, v.
Mixing, if it occurs, may not be readily apparent if the concentration of a particular constituent (such as dissolved Cl He, there will almost always be compositional gradients, especially when ground water is sampled from relatively large intervals in aquifers.